The state of Jammu Kashmir is located in the lap of Himalayas and Karakoram. The steep high peaks on Kashmir motorway near Rampur remind us of the shells of marine fish that have accumulated over time. A close observation of these rocks indicates that at some remote stage in history would be at the bottom of a sea. The fossils of the Kastora fish in the various areas of the Karakoram and Pir Panjal also point to such an observation. In addition, it is also evident from the fossils found in the mountains of “Zee Won” area. A few miles eastward from Srinagar, that the valley of Kashmir was once submerged into the sea and later appeared on the surface. The rocks of dried lava on the seat of Suleiman near Srinagar make it clear that they came into existence as a result of a volcano eruption. This process could have occurred under the sea. The presence of granite stones beside Nanga Parbat shows that they have been erupted out of the land from under the sea. Similar pieces of evidence have been found about K2 and Nanga Parbat. The sky-high mountains indicate that they must have been submerged into the sea at some stage. These mountains have emerged out of deposits of dust, sand, plants or sea animals laying there for billions of years. Later on, these rocks, piled on each other came out of the sea. The earth seems to have been pressed in this way, which resulted in cracks. This is how the surface of earth kept changing, causing reverberations. It is said that at one stage, Kashmir had a direct terrestrial link with America, Madagascar, and western Africa.
These rocks leaped thousands of feet up as a result of their movement under the earth. This process was not possible in a matter of a few years. It would have taken billions of years. Only the one, who might have seen the beautiful mountains of Kashmir could believe in the truth of this claim and process. These mountains tell their own story of rebellion. Today the splendor and greatness of these mountains are self explanatory and their sight is more than enough to impress any onlooker.
According to a careful estimate, it took over a billion of ars. It is, however, difficult to describe the exact boundaries of the Teeth Ocean in which Kashmir was submerged. Though somehow it was connected to an island with India and Africa both through land and sea. The ocean was linked to Europe in the west and China to the east. The waste and rubbish brought by the rivers got gradually accumulated in its bottom in thousands of years which turned harder and harder and eventually emerged as mountains.
Scientifically, the most massive and biggest movement under the surface of the earth took place 4 hundred million years ago before the Joncer period. The chest of the earth eagerly rose above the sea, land appeared up and whatever was accumulated under the surface of water came out. The volcanic eruption took place and the newly formed rocks were covered with the layers of lava, which eventually developed into the mountains we see today. One of them is the seat of Suleiman. This was the initial formation and manifestation of Kashmir, which was not as beautiful as it seems today having covered with jungles, snowy peaks and engaging valleys but was only in the form of jumble up group of volcanic islands. Still, this was not the permanent landscape of Kashmir because it submerged again into the ocean and remained there for next 350 to 400 million years. But again in the Carboniferous period, the island of Kashmir reappeared as a result of the enormous volcanic activity. Gradually the whole Kashmir as it exists today emerged and became visible adjacent to the continent. Then it was connected to Africa through the land. We can easily estimate from all such changes that how the current stationary piece of land still not final but have undergone enormous activity.
However, this was still not final but also a short period of Kashmir’s existence, because, in the middle of the Carboniferous period, it submerged again and remained there for thousands of years. First, it re-emerged in the initial tertiary i.e some 4 million years ago and gradually pushed the sea away from Tibet and Himalaya. During Eocene age (2 to 2.5 million years ago) Tibet and Himalaya emerged as dry land. Kashmir was now a part of the continent. The underground powers were fully active. Another volcano turned things upside down, to which Himalaya’s emergence was probably attributed to. Molten granite from the bottom of earth came out through the layered rocks. It came from the boiling interior of the earth and eventually got turned into unprecedented solid peaks. So the beautiful mountains in Kashmir are as much the result of evolution elsewhere. The process of this evolution still continues both perceptibly and imperceptibly. Professor M B Pithawala states that:
“It is to be noted that work of upheaval in the Himalayas has not yet been completed They are still in the act of rising. So very unstable they are and the process is going on, even the heights of mountains peaks must be increasing “. (an introduction to Kashmir P.9)